Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Theories of Deviance Essay Sample Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society.
Mar 22, Abstract Democratization in non-Western societies NWS has historically resulted in the introduction or imitation of the modern West European democracy model supply factor. However, the process took less time in countries that shared homogeneity or similarities with WES, especially fellow the other European countries.
NWS accept these modern elements and attempt to transplant them into the traditional society, with one major element being democracy, in all its various stages and forms. While each society chooses the most suitable form to adopt for its own society, if the model is incompatible the enforceability Theories of deviance essay the format will be reduced.
Another problem is the fact that democracy will not take root and become established on autopilot once it is introduced in a new society.
The following is an attempt to figure out why this happens. Democratization and Theories of Democracy Preceding studies on democratization and democracy While the reader may wish to refer to the past literature on conventional theories of democracy, this paper seems to be the first to analyze democratization and the subsequent process from the perspectives mentioned above.
Although political science is the most directly related field in the discussion of democratization theory research, it cannot handle all the factors involved in democratization process, i. In particular, it is inadequate to discuss democracy in NWS focusing only on democratization, because these societies are basically in premodern states.
Since the s, political science has been paying attention to democratization, which was brought about around the globe by the Third Wave, through which many countries began to move toward democratization.
Numerous arguments on democratization have come out of these phenomena, but in recent years, some of the theories have been merging [ 1 ]. Though inadequate, Actor-Centered Approach ACA is currently the most dominant, and it is employed to analyze the process of democratization of many non-Western emerging countries with Theories of deviance essay effectiveness.
However, the theory is effective in so far as explaining the transition process to democratization, and not afterwards. It is therefore necessary to build a theoretical hypothesis around the entire series of events surrounding democracy such as the establishment, stability and development of a democracy, as well as how to avoid its regression and collapse.
ACA argues that the transition from the authoritarian regime to the democratization process has nothing to do with economy, historyculture, etc. It presupposes a strategy game between the four parties among governing actor and the opposition actor, combinations of which render several transition types.
According to this theory, it is unclear as to how the new democracy will be able to thrive, or whether regression and collapse can be avoided.
In short, we still seem short of a single framework in political science that would explain the reasons why some countries democratize better than others, as well as why some fail to maintain the democratic process while others succeed [ 2 ].
Stabilization and establishment of democracy In the past several decades since the Third Wave, there have been countries that successfully transformed into democracies and those that did not. What set them apart? In WES, the process of initiating a democratic regime can be regarded as the same process as the subsequent establishment and stabilization process, while NWS may be a totally different story.
Politically speaking, there are two stages of democratization. The first starts with the collapse of the authoritarian regime and ends with the establishment of a democracy.
The second process involves the stabilization and sustainment of the newly established democracy after eliminating the remaining authoritarian factors.
However, the author sees these two as one process, both having a lot to do with each other. The democracy won by revolution and its subsequent establishment may seem to be separate issues, but they are indeed a series of inseparable and intertwined processes.
Historically, democracy in the West was born out of the modernization process closely related to political, social and cultural elements, and was not a mere political phenomenon. On the other hand, democratization in Asia is often a switch from a dictatorship system that suppresses democratization, and as a result, democratization does not always end up taking root permanently.
One of them is the lack of distinction between WES, especially France, which produced modern democracy, and NWS which only formally accepts it. The other is the difference in how to look at the societies that are forced to accept democracy.
Statistics also support the fact that the democratic systems of NWS are difficult to realize. The degrees of democratization are lower compared with Western society, and the newly-born democracies are much more vulnerable and prone to collapse.
In other words, if a democratic regime in WES is established, there is a high possibility that it will survive and become stabilized, but the same cannot be expected of the majority of NWS.
The question is why is this? Some of them are countries and regions that have produced modern democracy. Throughout WES, the environment for democracy had already been in place, and there were no major obstacles to realizing modern democracy.
The conditions for maintaining and developing democracy had been ready to some extent even before modernization. This shows that the capabilities to produce democracy matched the potentiality to nurture it. Another important thing is that these societies held within them the conditions to give birth to democracy as well as the capabilities to improve and cultivate it as necessary.
However, among the same European countries, those with low social and cultural homogeneity with West European countries tend to show delays in and limited advancement of democratization.
EIU announced Democracy Indices for nations inwhich evaluated the degrees of democracy in four categories: The Democracy Indices of most countries in West European society are within the top 20, and the top countries have not changed greatly in ranking or scores for a long time.
The biggest reason for the difference between WES and NWS lies in whether modernization and modern democracy is a product of their own initiative.Published: Thu, 02 Aug Introduction. The essay will look at historical subcultural theories and explanations which play a role in explaining youth offending behaviour.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the pfmlures.com a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term.
This page is just one of this website's over 2, pages of factual documentation and resources on corporal punishment around the world. Have a look at the site's front page or go to the explanatory page, About this website. Marxist Theories (Crime and Deviance) Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the strength and limitations of Marxist theories in explaining crime and deviance (21 marks) Marxist theories of crime are based on conflict, as opposed to the functionalist and subcultural explanations of crime, which are based on consensus.
Theories of deviance (1)The text describes issues of unacceptable behavior in the society. There was given 4 different theories that explain reasons and different aspects of deviance behavior.
Crime and Deviance is part of our society. To clarify the meaning of both words in the context of this essay; crime is an unlawful criminal act, whereas deviance is a behaviour which is not a social norm (breaking the social rules).