In general, the forces of competition are imposing a need for more effective decision making at all levels in organizations. Progressive Approach to Modeling: Modeling for decision making involves two distinct parties, one is the decision-maker and the other is the model-builder known as the analyst.
Scott and Elaine Manglitz Making the college transition Many individuals with learning disabilities experience difficulty in learning a foreign language. Is it any wonder?
Learning disabilities LD often affect language-based tasks such as reading, spelling, writing, or listening. Problems in the native language will still be present, if not magnified, in the process of learning a second language system. Research since the 's has supported the logical conclusion that there is indeed a link between native and foreign language learning.
Results have shown that phonological difficulties problems with tasks involving putting sounds together and pulling sounds apart in spoken and written language and orthographic difficulties problems with sound-symbol tasks in language have the most immediate and severe impact on foreign language learning.
These types of abilities are called on for such fundamental tasks as learning a new alphabet e. Other areas that have been found to affect foreign language learning include syntactic abilities use and understanding of the grammatical rules of languagesemantics understanding word meaning and conceptsand short-term memory needed to acquire and practice new language demands.
Researchers have also identified patterns in developmental history and academic learning that may correlate with later foreign language learning problems. Individuals with learning disabilities who have difficulty learning a foreign language often experienced difficulty or delay in learning to speak, received speech therapy early in their lives, or had a family history of language and learning problems.
Academically, they may have had difficulty in learning to read, especially with learning phonics. Early difficulties with spelling and inconsistent use of grammar and mechanics are often part of the individual's learning history and frequently persist into adolescence and adulthood.
At the same time that research has been affirming the difficulties in foreign language learning of many students with learning disabilities, an increasing number of individuals with LD are attending college. Recent national figures show that percent of all college freshmen identify themselves as having learning disabilities.
How students with LD are meeting college foreign language requirements and what accommodations and services are available to them are still relative unknowns. College accommodations and services With the increased focus in high schools and colleges on preparing students for life and work in a global society, students can expect that more colleges and universities will require the completion of foreign language courses for their degrees.
Students with learning disabilities who attend college will find a continuum of services and choices related to foreign languages. Supports and services vary widely ranging from basic classroom and testing accommodations, to special sections of a language, to course substitutions.
Although federal law requires colleges and universities to provide reasonable accommodations for students who have documented learning disabilities, the range of accommodations and modifications are determined by individual campuses.
A survey done in the late 's showed that tutoring was the most frequently reported college service for foreign language support. A smaller number of institutions offered an individualized learning pace, and a few colleges had special sections of classes for students who have difficulties completing the foreign language requirements.
Almost three-fourths of the colleges and universities were offering course substitutions, although not all of the institutions had a formal, written policy. Colleges and universities that offer course substitutions typically have specific requirements for documentation of the LD.
Some also require additional information, such as: Over time, colleges have continued to expand their support of students with LD. Though some campuses provide minimal services in foreign language learning, many have devised creative learning accommodations in order to provide greater access for students with LD.
Options and supports include both formal accommodations specific to the needs of students with LD and informal supports available to all students in foreign language learning. Many programs offer selective advisement to guide students with LD to take a foreign language or programmatic option such -as study abroad or immersion that fits their strengths.
Supports open to all students such as participating in a conversational lunch group or pairing with a student from a specific country to study and learn the language are also encouraged. At some institutions, foreign language instructors are willing to provide increased support for students with learning disabilities, including creative multisensory teaching methods and accommodations more specific to foreign language learning e.
Some colleges have created additional programmatic options for students with LD, such as: It is clear that with the various requirements, instructional options, accommodations, and modifications related to foreign languages at colleges and universities, it is important for students to be informed consumers when preparing for and choosing a college.
Students should start early considering questions similar to the following:After + years of democracy, we are experiencing a break-down in respecting the election result by the citizens of this country.
The hatred demonstrated by the liberals is unprecedented (probably the biggest hate group in the US right now). What is consensus decision making?
Consensus decision making is a creative and dynamic way of reaching agreement between all members of a group.
DEBATE DEBATE. Use of research results in policy decision-making, formulation, and implementation: a review of the literature. La utilización de los resultados de la investigación en el proceso de decisión, formulación y implementación de políticas: una revisión de la literatura.
Scarlett Johansson won a defamation suit against a French writer for creating a promiscuous character who happened to look like the movie star. The essay is the most important part of a college appllication, see sample essays perfect for applying to schools in the US.
Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing.
Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College.