Early precedents[ edit ] There is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece. In BCE, in the Greek city of Sybaris located in what is now southern Italy"encouragement was held out to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury, the profits arising from which were secured to the inventor by patent for the space of a year. Another early example of such letters patent was a grant by Henry VI in to John of Utynama Flemish man, for a twenty-year monopoly for his invention.
Effects[ edit ] A patent does not give a right to make or use or sell an invention. From an economic and practical standpoint however, a patent is better and perhaps more precisely regarded as conferring upon its proprietor "a right to try to exclude by asserting the patent in court", for many granted patents turn Patent law to be invalid once their proprietors attempt to assert them in court.
Like any other property right, it may be sold, licensed, mortgagedassigned or transferred, given away, or simply abandoned. A patent, being an exclusionary right, does not necessarily give the patent owner the right to exploit the invention subject to the patent.
Patent law example, many inventions are improvements of prior inventions that may still be covered by someone else's patent. Some countries have "working provisions" that require the invention be exploited in the jurisdiction it covers.
Consequences of not working an invention vary from one country to another, ranging from revocation of the patent rights to the awarding of a compulsory license awarded by the courts to a party wishing to exploit a patented invention.
The patentee has the opportunity to challenge the revocation or license, but is usually required to provide evidence that the reasonable requirements of the public have been met by the working of invention.
Challenges[ edit ] In most jurisdictions, there are ways for third parties to challenge the validity of an allowed or issued patent at the national patent office; these are called opposition proceedings. It is also possible to challenge the validity of a patent in court.
In either case, the challenging party tries to prove that the patent should never have been granted. There are several grounds for challenges: Patents can be found to be invalid in whole or in part for any of these reasons.
Patent infringement Patent infringement occurs when a third party, without authorization from the patentee, makes, uses, or sells a patented invention. Patents, however, are enforced on a nation by nation basis.
The making of an item in China, for example, that would infringe a U. To prove infringement, the patent owner must establish that the accused infringer practises all the requirements of at least one of the claims of the patent.
In many jurisdictions the scope of the patent may not be limited to what is literally stated in the claims, for example due to the doctrine of equivalents. An accused infringer has the right to challenge the validity of the patent allegedly being infringed in a counterclaim.
A patent can be found invalid on grounds described in the relevant patent laws, which vary between countries. Often, the grounds are a subset of requirements for patentability in the relevant country. Although an infringer is generally free to rely on any available ground of invalidity such as a prior publicationfor examplesome countries have sanctions to prevent the same validity questions being relitigated.
An example is the UK Certificate of contested validity. It is common for companies engaged in complex technical fields to enter into multiple license agreements associated with the production of a single product.
Moreover, it is equally common for competitors in such fields to license patents to each other under cross-licensing agreements in order to share the benefits of using each other's patented inventions.
Ownership[ edit ] In most countries, both natural persons and corporate entities may apply for a patent. In the United States, however, only the inventor s may apply for a patent although it may be assigned to a corporate entity subsequently  and inventors may be required to assign inventions to their employers under an employment contract.
In most European countries, ownership of an invention may pass from the inventor to their employer by rule of law if the invention was made in the course of the inventor's normal or specifically assigned employment duties, where an invention might reasonably be expected to result from carrying out those duties, or if the inventor had a special obligation to further the interests of the employer's company.
The inventors, their successors or their assignees become the proprietors of the patent when and if it is granted. If a patent is granted to more than one proprietor, the laws of the country in question and any agreement between the proprietors may affect the extent to which each proprietor can exploit the patent.
For example, in some countries, each proprietor may freely license or assign their rights in the patent to another person while the law in other countries prohibits such actions without the permission of the other proprietor s.
The ability to assign ownership rights increases the liquidity of a patent as property. Inventors can obtain patents and then sell them to third parties. Outline of patents The grant and enforcement of patents are governed by national laws, and also by international treaties, where those treaties have been given effect in national laws.
Patents are granted by national or regional patent offices.A provisional patent application can be used by a patent applicant to secure a filing date while avoiding some of the costs and formalities associated with the filing and prosecution of a non-provisional patent application.
Patents & Trademarks: Protecting Individuals and Startups If you don’t believe passion is important in starting a business or pursuing an idea - then we are the wrong patent law firm for you! Our Orange County patent attorneys prosecute and procure patents for clients located in Orange County and Los Angeles County.
Our practice also covers patent . A patent is a form of intellectual property.A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of time, usually twenty years.
The patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. People who are employed to do research are often obligated by their employment contracts to.
The history of patents and patent law is generally considered to have started with the Venetian Statute of Home page of the United States Patent and Trademark Office's main web site.