The relations between Pakistan and India have been subject to many strains by numerous political dilemmas in history and currently as well, they include the Partition of British India inthe Kashmir dispute and the many military conflicts which have been fought between the two states. These two states of South Asia share historic, cultural, geographic and economic links but their relationship has been filled with hostility and doubt.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Almost six decades after the two countries attained independence from colonial rule they are still embroiled in a bitter conflict which has assumed more complexity with the passage of time.
Developments like international terrorism, nuclearization of both countries and the rise of India as a global economic power have elevated the Indo Pak issue from a regional conflict to one having global implications. Furthermore their proximity to Iran, China and Afghanistan means that no global power can ignore their geo strategic importance.
To understand the conflict between the two countries and delineate its causes it is imperative that we take a holistic view of the issue and not treat it as simply a political feud.
In the ensuing pages an attempt will be made to analyze the relations of the two countries in light of events both political and sociological.
While religion was not a divisive force in India during most of its history it was one of the major forces behind the Pakistan movement and in light of recent developments has assumed even greater importance in understanding and resolving this conflict.
Thus no discussion on this issue will be complete without discussing the religious history of the two countries.
The final section will attempt to critically analyze the efforts of the two countries to resolve their issues and try to predict a trajectory for future events. Some attribute the rivalry to a simmering undercurrent of antagonism which had been effectively controlled by the British military and bureaucracy through a divide and rule policy but which boiled over when there appeared the slightest chance for self-governance.
Others link it to key historical events in Indian history like the successful coup of Aurangzeb against his brothers or the Battle of Plassey.
Still others give it a sociological dimension claiming demographic factors to be a key division. Listed below are some such explanations.
It must be noted that this list can never be exhaustive neither can any theory exclusively claim to explain the divide between these two nations. Instead one should try to view the issue on a holistic level where a combination of sociological, religious and political factors conspired to create a divide which has still not been bridged after six decades.
Muslim assertiveness and Hindu Resentment dating from the period of Aurangzeb bore the seeds of Hindu-Muslim antagonism, according to these theorists. Some theorists also point to the Battle of Plassey as a critical juncture in the history of the sub-continent. Another school of thought explains Hindu-Muslim antagonism as follows.
The British to a large extent wrested political power from Muslim rulers in different parts of the country. Consequently, Muslims were neglected and deliberately subjected to discriminatory treatment in the initial period of British rule, whereas Hindus were favored with opportunities to participate in the lower levels of administration and to become incrementally involved in economic and commercial activities.
This enabled Hindus to become the more prosperous and progressive partners of the power structure of British India till the first decade of the 20th century. From being the rulers of India, the Muslim community became a comparatively backward and politically powerless segment.
This theory also focuses on demographic factors, for instance Hindus were traditionally a business oriented community and thus found it easier to blend in with the colonial forces, the Muslims on the other hand either belonged to the feudal and related classes or were artisans.
This divide was accentuated by the policies of the British as the merchant class thrived under their policies. Religious Then there is the view that mainstream Indian politics, which in its initial phase was dominated by the urbanized English-educated middle class, was devoid of religious or communal overtones.
But by the middle of the second decade of the 20th century, religious identities became resurgent, which ultimately led to the Hindu-Muslim divide, Partition and the creation of India and Pakistan. Religion has often been singled out as the main cause of the schism which is misleading to some extent.November Kashmir Conflict (India and Pakistan) The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan dates back to the independence of both countries in The territory of Kashmir was at the time mostly Muslim but with a Hindu ruler, and it was unclear whether Kashmir would join with Pakistan or India.
It is the violation of this norm that underpins the modern India-Pakistan (or Hindu-Muslim) rivalry. By the time of partition, the two sides had lived together in . The Rivalry Between India And Pakistan History Essay.
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