Financial markets are typically defined by having transparent pricing, basic regulations on trading, costs and fees, and market forces determining the prices of securities that trade. Financial markets can be found in nearly every nation in the world. Some are very small, with only a few participants, while others - like the New York Stock Exchange NYSE and the forex markets - trade trillions of dollars daily. Investors have access to a large number of financial markets and exchanges representing a vast array of financial products.
Financial markets are typically defined by having transparent pricing, basic regulations on trading, costs Financial institutions markets fees, and market forces determining the prices of securities that trade.
Financial markets can be found in nearly every nation in the world. Some are very small, with only a few participants, while others - like the New York Stock Exchange NYSE and the forex markets - trade trillions of dollars daily. Investors have access to a large number of financial markets and exchanges representing a vast array of financial products.
Some of these markets have always been open to private investors; others remained the exclusive domain of major international banks and financial professionals until the very end of the twentieth century.
Capital Markets A capital market is one in which individuals and institutions trade financial securities. Organizations and institutions in the public and private sectors also often sell securities on the capital markets in order to raise funds.
Thus, this type of market is composed of both the primary and secondary markets. Any government or corporation requires capital funds to finance its operations and to engage in its own long-term investments. To do this, a company raises money through the sale of securities - stocks and bonds in the company's name.
These are bought and sold in the capital markets. Stock Markets Stock markets allow investors to buy and sell shares in publicly traded companies. They are one of the most vital areas of a market economy as they provide companies with access to capital and investors with a slice of ownership in the company and the potential of gains based on the company's future performance.
This market can be split into two main sections: The primary market is where new issues are first offered, with any subsequent trading going on in the secondary market. Bond Markets A bond is a debt investment in which an investor loans money to an entity corporate or governmentalwhich borrows the funds for a defined period of time at a fixed interest rate.
Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states and U. Bonds can be bought and sold by investors on credit markets around the world. This market is alternatively referred to as the debt, credit or fixed-income market.
It is much larger in nominal terms that the world's stock markets. The main categories of bonds are corporate bonds, municipal bonds, and U.
Treasury bonds, notes and bills, which are collectively referred to as simply "Treasuries. Money Market The money market is a segment of the financial market in which financial instruments with high liquidity and very short maturities are traded.
The money market is used by participants as a means for borrowing and lending in the short term, from several days to just under a year. Money market securities consist of negotiable certificates of deposit CDsbanker's acceptances, U. Treasury bills, commercial paper, municipal notes, eurodollars, federal funds and repurchase agreements repos.
Money market investments are also called cash investments because of their short maturities. The money market is used by a wide array of participants, from a company raising money by selling commercial paper into the market to an investor purchasing CDs as a safe place to park money in the short term.
The money market is typically seen as a safe place to put money due the highly liquid nature of the securities and short maturities. Because they are extremely conservative, money market securities offer significantly lower returns than most other securities.
However, there are risks in the money market that any investor needs to be aware of, including the risk of default on securities such as commercial paper. To learn more, read our Money Market Tutorial.
Cash or Spot Market Investing in the cash or " spot " market is highly sophisticated, with opportunities for both big losses and big gains.
In the cash market, goods are sold for cash and are delivered immediately. By the same token, contracts bought and sold on the spot market are immediately effective. Prices are settled in cash "on the spot" at current market prices. This is notably different from other markets, in which trades are determined at forward prices.
The cash market is complex and delicate, and generally not suitable for inexperienced traders. The cash markets tend to be dominated by so-called institutional market players such as hedge funds, limited partnerships and corporate investors.
The very nature of the products traded requires access to far-reaching, detailed information and a high level of macroeconomic analysis and trading skills. Derivatives Markets The derivative is named so for a reason: A derivative is a contract, but in this case the contract price is determined by the market price of the core asset.
If that sounds complicated, it's because it is. The derivatives market adds yet another layer of complexity and is therefore not ideal for inexperienced traders looking to speculate. However, it can be used quite effectively as part of a risk management program.Financial Markets and Institutions takes a practical approach to the changing landscape of financial markets and institutions.
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