Healthier Grain-Free Chocolate Zucchini or Apple Bread Just returned, completely rejuvenated, from a trip to a see friends and relatives up north. Minnesota and North Dakota are some of my favorite places on Earth. I feel revitalized from being immersed in this uplifting, highly social culture for two weeks.
The expedition spent five months Californias death penalty essay the islands. Clement also urged the kings of Portugal and Castile to provide assistance to Cerda's expedition. The raids and attacks of the Reconquista created captives on both sides, who were either ransomed or sold as slaves.
During the dynastic wars of the s, between Portugal and Castile, Portuguese and Castilian privateers made for the Canaries for shelter or slaving raids. Inthe Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta and continued to expand their control along the coast of Morocco. Portuguese ventures were intended to compete with the Muslim trans-Sahara caravans, which held a monopoly on West African gold and ivory.
Portugal and Spain continued to dispute control of the Canary Islands.
The expedition included two Franciscan friars. Lanzaroteand later Fuerteventura and El Hierro were occupied, and the Bishopric of the Canaries was established.
When a landing was repulsed by the Guanchesthe native Berber inhabitants, the expedition then plundered the Castilian missions on Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Calvetos informed the pope of the pillaging carried out by the Portuguese "pirates". Pope Eugene IV issued Regimini gregis on 29 September and Creator Omnium, on 17 Decemberforbidding any further raids on the Canaries and ordered the immediate manumission of all Christian converts enslaved during the attack.
Payne, "[T]he expansion of the faith was inextricably intertwined with military glory and economic profit. Because of this it is idle to ask, as is frequently done, whether the Portuguese pioneers and Castilian conquistadores were motivated more by greed or by religious zeal.
In the Hispanic crusading expansionist ideology, the two went together. He then granted Portugal the right to subdue and even enslave Muslims, pagans and other unbelievers in the papal bull Dum Diversas Pope Alexander VI had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal.
A further Bull, Dudum siquidemmade some more concessions to Spain, and the pope's arrangements were then amended by the Treaty of Tordesillas of negotiated between Spain and Portugal.
After the discovery of the Americas, many of the clergy sent to the New World began to criticize Spain and the Church's treatment of indigenous peoples. In DecemberAntonio de Montesinosa Dominican friar, openly rebuked the Spanish rulers of Hispaniola for their "cruelty and tyranny" in dealing with the natives.
However enforcement was lax, and the New Laws of took a stronger line. This caused a revolt among the Spanish colonists, and the alarmed government backed down, softening the effect of the laws. Some historians blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians; others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples.
InFranciscan missionaries known as the Twelve Apostles of Mexico arrived in what is New Spainfollowed by the Dominicans inand the Augustinians in Because some people questioned whether the Indians were truly men who deserved baptism, Pope Paul III in the papal bull Veritas Ipsa or Sublimis Deus confirmed that the Indians were deserving men.
For example, these theologians thought that it was illegitimate to conquer other peoples for religious reasons, or even to force the baptisms of non-Christian subjects.
Their views on non-believers had been already established by medieval discussions of Jewish and Muslim subjects of Christian princes.
Although this view was not always prevalent, it was the traditional Dominican and Thomist view, and reflected the practice of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. However, while such theologians limited Charles V 's imperial powers over colonized people, they also mentioned some legitimate reasons for the conquest.
For instance, on their view, war might be justified if the indigenous people refused free transit and commerce to the Europeans; if they forced converts to return to idolatry ; if there come to be a sufficient number of Christians in the newly discovered land that they wish to receive from the Pope a Christian government; if the indigenous people lacked just laws, magistrates, agricultural techniques, etc.
More traditional theologians legitimized the conquest while at the same time limiting the absolute power of the sovereignwhich was celebrated in others parts of Europe under the developing notion of the divine right of kings.
Conversions and assimilation[ edit ] Main article: Our Lady of Guadalupe The conquest was immediately accompanied by evangelization, and new, local forms of Catholicism appeared.
The Virgin of Guadalupe is one of Mexico 's oldest religious images, and is said to have appeared to Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin in News of the apparition on Tepayac Hill spread quickly through Mexico; and in the seven years that followed, throughthe Indian people accepted the Spaniards and 8 million people were converted to the Catholic faith.
Thereafter, the Aztecs no longer practiced human sacrifice or native forms of worship. Guadalupe is often considered a mixture of the cultures which blend to form Mexico, both racially  and religiously  Guadalupe is sometimes called the "first mestiza "  or "the first Mexican".
As Jacques Lafaye wrote in Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe, "Just returned, completely rejuvenated, from a trip to a see friends and relatives up north.
Minnesota and North Dakota are some of my favorite places on Earth. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin United States of America's death penalty laws and how they are applied, including death row and execution numbers, death-eligible crimes, methods of execution, appeals and clemency, availability of lawyers, prison conditions, ratification of international instruments, and recent developments.
A daily, in-depth interview program providing context and background to the issues that face our region. Comments → Why Ben Shapiro Is A Total Fraud. Ezekiel May 6, at am. Okay – a lot to take in, for someone who just recently started taking politics seriously, but damn.
This is an evisceration. A daily, in-depth interview program providing context and background to the issues that face our region.